May 2014 JPGN Quiz
Which of the following statements regarding adolescent NAFL is most correct?
A - Prevalence of NAFL in adolescents based on previous reports is in the range of 10?20%
B - NAFL is a benign condition in adolescents.
C - Liver enzymes are same in male and female adolescents with NAFL.
D - Development of NAFL in adolescence is often associated with type 2 diabetes
Considering sources of fructose in this study’s adolescent cohort, reducing intakes of which of the following could be the most effective way to decrease excess fructose in their diets?
A - Fruit juice
B - Fruit
C - Sugar-sweetened (non-diet) soft drinks
D - Biscuits, cakes and sweets
Which of the following best summarizes the metabolism of fructose compared to glucose after a meal?
A - Fructose is mostly metabolized in the liver whereas glucose is metabolized in other tissues as well.
B - Both fructose and glucose are solely metabolized in the liver
C - Glucose is metabolized in the liver but most fructose is metabolized by fat cells
D - Fructose is directly converted to uric acid in the liver whereas glucose is not.
Which of the following best describes the current understanding of the relationship between obesity and adolescent NAFL?
A - NAFL always develops in those adolescents who are obese
B - Excess adiposity and fructose intake are risk factors for NAFL
C - Underweight and normal weight adolescents do not develop NAFL
D - Total sugar intake is the only factor involved in the development of NAFL
Whole cow milk?based formulas (CMF) contain proteins in the range of 14 kD (??lactalbumin) to 67 kD (bovine serum albumin). What is the difference between a pHF and an extensively?hydrolysate formula (eHF)?
A - pHF contain reduced oligopeptides that have a molecular weight of generally < 5 kD. Peptides in eHF have, in >90%, a molecular weight of <3 kD. Both pHFs and eHFs consist of a wide range of peptide sizes.
B - pHF and eHF consist both of a narrow range of peptide sizes.
C - pHF contain mainly whole cow's milk protein and a small percentage of hydrolysed protein.
D - eHF) means that a much larger proportion of the native cow's milk protein are hydrolysed than in partial hydrolysates.
Which of the following were included in this study:
A - Papers that were withdrawn from the literature due to suspected fraud
B - Case series
C - Case reports
D - Randomized studies
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the methods of this review?
A - Observational trials and randomized controlled trials were considered for inclusion.
B - The participants in the included trials had to be only infants at high the risk of developing allergy.
C - The risk of allergy was assessed by a family history.
D - The included trials compared use of soy protein formula with standard infant formula or follow? on formula.
What were the results of the only single?blind RCT included in this paper?
A - Feeding with CMF significantly reduced the risk of allergic diseases compared to pHF
B - Feeding with pHF did not significantly affect the risk of developing any allergic disease at 0?1 year as compared to CMF
C - A significant difference for the secondary outcomes was identified between the group fed pHF and the group fed CMF within the first 2 years
D - A significant difference for the secondary outcomes was identified between the group fed pHF and the group fed CMF at 6?7 years
If a mother cannot nurse her infant, and her first?born child has been diagnosed with atopic dermatitits, which of the following would be a feeding of choice for the second child:
A - Cow milk?based formula
B - Hydrolyzed cow milk formula
C - Soy protein?based formula
D - Almond milk