May 2014 JPGN Quiz
1 - Which of the following statements regarding adolescent NAFL is most correct?
A   - Prevalence of NAFL in adolescents based on previous reports is in the range of 10?20%
B   - NAFL is a benign condition in adolescents.
C   - Liver enzymes are same in male and female adolescents with NAFL.
D   - Development of NAFL in adolescence is often associated with type 2 diabetes
2 - Considering sources of fructose in this study’s adolescent cohort, reducing intakes of which of the following could be the most effective way to decrease excess fructose in their diets?
A   - Fruit juice
B   - Fruit
C   - Sugar-sweetened (non-diet) soft drinks
D   - Biscuits, cakes and sweets
3 - Which of the following best summarizes the metabolism of fructose compared to glucose after a meal?
A   - Fructose is mostly metabolized in the liver whereas glucose is metabolized in other tissues as well.
B   - Both fructose and glucose are solely metabolized in the liver
C   - Glucose is metabolized in the liver but most fructose is metabolized by fat cells
D   - Fructose is directly converted to uric acid in the liver whereas glucose is not.
4 - Which of the following best describes the current understanding of the relationship between obesity and adolescent NAFL?
A   - NAFL always develops in those adolescents who are obese
B   - Excess adiposity and fructose intake are risk factors for NAFL
C   - Underweight and normal weight adolescents do not develop NAFL
D   - Total sugar intake is the only factor involved in the development of NAFL
5 - Whole cow milk?based formulas (CMF) contain proteins in the range of 14 kD (??lactalbumin) to 67 kD (bovine serum albumin). What is the difference between a pHF and an extensively?hydrolysate formula (eHF)?
A   - pHF contain reduced oligopeptides that have a molecular weight of generally < 5 kD. Peptides in eHF have, in >90%, a molecular weight of <3 kD. Both pHFs and eHFs consist of a wide range of peptide sizes.
B   - pHF and eHF consist both of a narrow range of peptide sizes.
C   - pHF contain mainly whole cow's milk protein and a small percentage of hydrolysed protein.
D   - eHF) means that a much larger proportion of the native cow's milk protein are hydrolysed than in partial hydrolysates.
6 - Which of the following were included in this study:
A   - Papers that were withdrawn from the literature due to suspected fraud
B   - Case reports
C   - Randomized studies
7 - Which of the following statements most accurately describes the methods of this review?
A   - Observational trials and randomized controlled trials were considered for inclusion.
B   - The participants in the included trials had to be only infants at high the risk of developing allergy.
C   - The risk of allergy was assessed by a family history.
D   - The included trials compared use of soy protein formula with standard infant formula or follow? on formula.
8 - What were the results of the only single?blind RCT included in this paper?
A   - Feeding with CMF significantly reduced the risk of allergic diseases compared to pHF
B   - Feeding with pHF did not significantly affect the risk of developing any allergic disease at 0?1 year as compared to CMF
C   - A significant difference for the secondary outcomes was identified between the group fed pHF and the group fed CMF within the first 2 years
D   - A significant difference for the secondary outcomes was identified between the group fed pHF and the group fed CMF at 6?7 years
9 - If a mother cannot nurse her infant, and her first?born child has been diagnosed with atopic dermatitits, which of the following would be a feeding of choice for the second child:
A   - Cow milk?based formula
B   - Hydrolyzed cow milk formula
C   - Soy protein?based formula
D   - Almond milk